Jagrati Kiran Naagar
A Comparative Study Of Role Of Ritodrine Versus Magnesium Sulphate In Preterm Labour

Jagrati Kiran Naagar1, Jyoti Bindal2

1Dr Jagrati Kiran Naagar, Assistant Professor Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Bundelkhand Medical College Sagar 470002.(M.P.), 2Dr Jyoti Bindal, Professor and Head of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, G R Medical College Gwalior.(M.P.)

Corresponding Author: Dr Jagrati Kiran Naagar E-mail: dr.jagratikirannaagar@gmail.com
 

                                                        
Abstract

Introduction : Preterm delivery which accounts for over 75% of all cases of perinatal mortality and morbidity is the most important obstetric problem of world today.The present study was conducted in the department of obstetrics and gynecology at Kamla Raja Hospital Gwalior. This study is an attempt to study the efficacy of two most commonly used tocolytic agents ritodrine versus magnesium sulphate in controlling preterm labour. Methods: The material for the present study comprised of 100 patients who were in preterm labour out of which 50 were given Ritodrine infusion and 50 were given magnesium sulphate.Both the groups were compared for tocolytic efficacy and effect of preterm labour on neonatal .mortality and morbidity. Result: In the present study  >2 days were gained in 28%in Ritodrine group and 26% in magnesium sulphate group.3-6 days gained in 42% cases in Ritodrine group and 46% in magnesium sulphate group.It was observed that maimum time gained in both the groups in majority of cases was up to 6 days. Conclusion: The primary tocolytic agent chosen should be efficient with minimum side effects to mother and fetus. Ritodrine group and magnesium sulphate appears to fulfill  these requirements. Magnesium sulphate is found to be comparable to Ritodrine in terms of efficacy and safety. Magnesium sulphate appears cheaper as compare to Ritodrine.

Keywords: Preterm labou , Tocolytic agents, Magnesium sulphate, Ritodrine, Apgar Score



Manuscript received: 3rd Mar 2015, Reviewed:12th Mar 2015
Author Corrected: 66th Apr 2015, Accepted for Publication: 11th Apr 2015

Introduction

Preterm labour is defined as onset of labour before 37 completed weeks from first day of last menstrual period of mother. It is the onset of regular, painful uterine contractions, two or more per 10 minutes each lasting for at least 30 seconds with cervical effacement upto 50% or cervical dilation upto 3 cm between 28-37 completed weeks of gestation. Preterm delivery which accounts for over 75% of all cases of perinatal mortality and morbidity [1] remains the most important obstetric problem of world today [1]. Preterm birth is the delivery of a baby before 37 completed weeks’ gestation. Most mortality and morbidity affects “ very preterm ”infants (those born before 32 weeks’ gestation ), & especially “extremely preterm” infants (those born before 28 weeks of gestation)[2].

The incidence of Low birth weight in India is about 30%-40% of which 12%-18% are associated with gestational age less than 37 weeks .The underlying causes are unknown in nearly 50% of the cases . It is far more preferable to prevent the initiation of preterm labour than once the cascade of events has already been established [3]. According  to WHO in 2005, 12.9 million births, or 9.6% of all births worldwide were preterm. Approximately 11 million (85%) of these preterm birth were concentrated in Africa and Asia, while about 0.5 million occurred in each of Europe & North  America & 0.9 million in Latin America and the Caribbean. The highest rates of preterm birth were in Africa , North America(11.9% & 10.6% respectively), and lowest were in Europe (6.2%)[4].Expectations of complications changes with advancing gestational age through the late preterm period. The 34 to 35 week gestational groups have increased rates of respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis and patent ductus  arteriosus. At 34 weeks’ gestation, relatively high rates of neonatal intensive care unit admission were noted (16.3%), where as the admission rate decreased to 4.8% by 36 weeks’ gestation [5]. Any preterm delivery, postponed by 24-72 hours, by using inhibitors of uterine contractile activity for at least 2 days, may be regarded as an optimal action of any tocolytic agent. This period gives time for glucocorticoids in enhancing lung maturity of foetus. These drugs delay the delivery and permit the use of glucocorticoids to facilitate the transfer of patient to a unit where intensive neonatal care facilities are available .Special attention was given to premature infant care as evident by development of incubators and neonatal care units. Prematurity becomes nationally visible as the most frequent cause of neonatal death
      
The present study is an attempt to study the efficacy of two most commonly used tocolytic agents Ritodrine Versus Magnesium Sulphate in controlling preterm labour so that a new door can be opened which will create new horizons for preterm infants.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

1. To compare the effectiveness of role of  agents  Ritodrine  Magnesium Sulphate in preterm labour.
2. To study the effect of tocolytic agent on preterm labour.
3. To study the effect of preterm labour on neonatal morbidity and mortality.

Material and Method

This study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at Tertiary care teaching hospital of central India over a period of one year. Study population considered of 100 patients out of whom 50 were given Ritodrine infusion (study group A) and 50 cases were given Magnesium Sulphate (study group B).

Inclusion Criteria: Patients who satisfied the following criteria-
• Singleton pregnancy
• Pregnancy between 24-36 weeks of gestation as calculated from last menstrual period
• Documented uterine contraction (at least 1-2 every minutes)
• Documented progression in cervical effacement and dilatation (2-4 cm)
• Intact membranes

Exclusion Criteria: Patients were excluded from history if anyone of following is present:
• Abnormal vaginal bleeding
• Documented ruptured membranes
• Foetal disorder like foetal distress Intra uterine growth retardation sand PolyHydramious, maternal disorder like heart disease, APH, diabetes.
• Estimated gestational age less than 24 weeks or more than 36 weeks.
• Estimated weight less than 500 gm or more than 2500 gm.
 
Following investigation  were carried out in all cases-
• Haemoglobin
• Blood urea
• Blood sugar
•  Blood

-Grouping
-Typing
• Urine
-Routine
-Microscopic

Detailed history of all cases was taken. Their age, residence, literacy, ocuupation socio economic status were noted. Socio economic status based on Prasad classification.Full general examination of patient including her general condition , pulse, blood pressure, total body weight, pallor icterus, oedema was done.
         
Parenatal Ritodrine therapy was started as soon as possible after the diagnosis of preterm labour. Diagnosis of preterm labour was established by estimating uterine activity, presence of show, cervical effacement and dilatation of cervix, condition of membrane, were examined for diagnosis of premature labour.

The Ritodrine infusion is prepared by dissolving 150 mg ritodrine in 500 ml of 5% glucose solution. Then this ritodrine hydrochloride solution is given I/V by microdip set. Initially started at 6-8 drop/minute. Then drop rate was increased after every 10 min. Till uterine contractions subsided or increases in pulse rate occurred of more than 120 beats/minutes.
Maternal blood pressure and pulse rate were recorded every 15 minutes during 1st hour. And half hourly during parentral therapy and every 4 hourly during initial oral treatment.
The therapy was discontinued if any side effects occurred. These included maternal heart rate of >120 beats per minute or foetal heart rate of >200 beats/minutes, if systolic blood pressure >160 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure <40 mmHg. In addition various subjective complaints such as chest pain, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting also considered.
Finally spontaneous rupture of membrane or progression of cervical dilatation >4 cm were noted and infusion stopped at this point.

Magnesium sulphate
Dose scheduled: An initial loading dose of 4 grams of magnesium sulphate (4 ampules of 50% magnesium sulphate) were dissolved in 20 cc of 5% dextrose solution. Which was given intravenous  slowly over 5-10 minutes, this loading dose was followed by 4 gm in 500 cc of 5% dextrose every 8 hourly, till symptoms of premature labour subsided, or any unacceptable side effect occurred.

Efficacy of drug was maintained by observing subsidence of uterine contraction, foetal heart sound, respiratory rate of mother of at least 14/minutes, urine output more than 30ml/hour, presence of deep tendon reflexes, knee jerk and diastolic blood pressure not less than 100 mmHg.
Tocolysis was considered successful if contraction ceased and delivery was delayed for at least 48 hours.

Result

Table No 1

 

Term delivery

Preterm delivery

Total

No. Of cases

2207

363

3070

% of cases

88.2%

11.8%

100%


Table No 2

Weeks of gestation

Number of cases

Percentage

27-28

10

10%

29-30

13

13%

31-32

45

45%

33-34

21

21%

35-36

12

12%

Total

100

100%


Table No 3

S. No.

Days gained

Study group A Ritodrine

Study group B

Magnesium sulphate

 

No

%

No

%

1

< 2

3

6%

6

12%

2

2 days

11

22%

10

20%

3

3-6

20

40%

21

42%

4

7-13

7

14%

7

14%

5

14-20

2

4%

5

10%

6

>21

7

14%

1

2%


Table No 4

S.No.

Apgar score

Study group A Ritodrine

Study group B

Magnesium sulphate

 

1-

Min.

%

5-

Min.

%

1

Min

%

5

min

%

1

<=7

15

30

3

6

18

36

4

8

2

>7

35

70

47

94

32

64

46

92


Table No 5

Result

(in study group A)

No of cases %

(in study group B)

 

No of cases

%

 

No of cases

%

 

Success

 

 

47

94

44

88

Failure

3

6

6

12


During study period of 12 months the overall incidence of preterm labour was 11.8%. We observed that the majority of cases were between 31-32 weeks of gestational age. It was observed that maximum time gained in both the group in majority of cases was up to 6 days. Apgar score of more than 7 were observed in 70% in study group A and 64% in study group B in 1 min and 94% and 92% in study group B in 5 min. Deliveries were postponed for more than 2 days in 94% cases in study group (A). More than 20 days were gained in 14% of patients. Maximum gained was 43 days in one patient, while in study group (B) deliveries were postponed for more than 2 days in 88% cases in magnesium sulphate treatment.

Discussion

Prematurity, together with its complications remains the most frequent preventable cause of neonatal loss. In an attempt to prevent the sequel of premature delivery, attention was logically centred on efforts to find safe and effective tocolytic drug.The relative safety of Ritodrine and patients acceptance of the drug side effects have been well established from the world wide clinical experiences. The common side effects are tachycardia, headache, palpitation and tremers encountered during an i.v. infusion of Ritodrine have been found to be well tolerated by the majority of patients.

A satisfactory pharmacological method for the prevention or treatment of preterm labour is yet to be found. It has been recognised for some time that ionic Magnesium in a sufficiently high concentration can alter myometrial contractility in vivo as well as in vitro. Very good effect seen in cases with pains and increased uterine tone .
Hence the present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of Ritodrine hydrochloride and Magnesium Sulphate as a tocolytic agent in preterm labour. The efficacy of Magnesium Sulphate was analysed in relation to Ritodrine hydrochloride. The result of this study confirms previous reports about the tocolytic action of Magnesium sulphate and Ritodrine.

50 cases of diagnosed preterm labour were studied for postponement of labour by Ritodrine and 50 cases by Magnesium Sulphate. In present study the highest incidence of preterm labour was recorded in age group of 21-25 years. Cotton and associates 1984 compared Magnesium sulphate with Ritodrine as well as with placebo and they identified little difference in outcome [6]. Faulty placentation ,intra-uterine infection , immunological factors , cervical incompetence , uterine factors , trauma and faetal anomalies are various groups of possible causes that lead to preterm labour [7] .Hollander and colleague 1987 used infusion dose of Magnesium sulphate that averaged 4.5gm/hr. They reported that such therapy is equivalent to Ritodrine [8. In present study maximum number of cases are primigravida, hence our study tally with the study of above authors. Ritodrine and Magnesium Sulphate does not appear to have any detrimental effect on the foetus as evidenced by the lack of significant changes in the fetal heart rate level. Apgar scores were satisfactory and comparable to other studies. Prenatal exposure to magnesium sulphate was not associated with increased neonatal morbidity and mortality. Magnesium administered to the mother promptly crosses the placenta to achieve equilibrium in foetal serum and less so in amniotic fluid .  It is reported that therapeutic magnesium sulphate for tocolysis did not alter the biophysical profile in 25 foetus studied. The neonate may be depressed only if severe hypermagnesemia exists at delivery. They have not observed neonatal compromise with intramuscular therapy with magnesium sulphate. Therefore women given high dose of magnesium sulphate must be monitored very closely for hypermagnesemia that might prove toxic to them and their foetus. Recently a possible protective effect of magnesium against cerebral palsy in very low birth weight infants is reported [9,10]. In the present study the mean time gained in both the groups was not significantly different These results are similar to the results of other studies [11,12]. In our study no difference was found in birth weight in relation to gestational age in both the groups.
 
In present study the the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome was 2% in study group (A) and 4% in study group (B) so our result suggest that the use of Ritodrine and Magnesium Sulphate significantly decreases the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome.  Apgar score of 7 or more was observed in 70% infant at 1 minute and 94% infants at 5 minutes in study group A. Apgar score was 64% in 1 min. and 92% in 5 min. was observed in study group B.These results are comparable to Amita Mahajan and Parveen Marwah‘s study in which70% newborns delivered to mother receiving magnesium sulphate as a tocolytic agent had 1 minute apgar score of 8-10 as compared to 65.22% in mothers receiving isoxsuprine. 84% neonates in group I had apgar score of 8 or more as compared to 80.43% patients in group II(12). This reflects that both magnesium sulphate or isoxsuprine given to mothers had no adverse effects on neonatal outcome

Conclusion

It is concluded from above study that Ritodrine and Magnesium Sulphate both are very effective tocolytic agents in arresting premature pains with a few side effects and good success rate, thus reducing the incidence of preterm labour and its associated stupendous reproductive loss.The almost similarity of success rate makes it difficult to choose from both of them. However, Ritodrine has been a more established tocolytic agent. But in our study of patients, tolerance was found to be better for Magnesium Sulphate group with few side effects. Magnesium Sulphate is found to be comparable to Ritodrine hydrochloride in terms of efficacy and safety. Magnesium Sulphate appears cheaper as compared to Ritodrine. However more work is needed to support favour of Magnesium Sulphate.


Funding: Nil, Conflict of interest: None initiated.
Permission from IRB: Yes

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How to cite this article?

Naagar JK, Bindal J. A comparative study of role of ritodrine versus magnesium sulphate in Preterm labour. Int J Med Res Rev 2015;3(4):409-413. doi: 10.17511/ijmrr.2015.i4.080.


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