Serum 25- hydroxy vitamin D levels in pregnant women with increase in parity in Tamilnadu population

Collapancheri Santhana Lakshmi, Amar Nagesh Kumar, Umakant Ramchandra Valvekar


Introduction: Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women is a preventable and treatable health problem. Studies on vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women reported the adverse effects on maternal health and fetal wellbeing. Utmost attention is required in prevention of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women. Aim of the present study is to know the status of vitamin D levels in pregnant women of different gravidaand to compare biochemical parameters in pregnant women with increase in parity. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective and observational study. Estimation of serum vitamin D levels was studied in 189 pregnant women. Pregnant females were randomly selected, who attended the antenatal clinic from April 2016 to November 2017. Women with serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D level lower than 10ng/ml were diagnosed as vitamin D deficient. Results: In the present study, the mean serum 25-OH vitamin D of all pregnant women is 16.7 ± 10.5 ng/ml. Primigravida women had higher 25-OH vitamin D (15.4 ± 10.7 ng/ml) than the second and the third grvida women (10.5 ± 8.9ng/ml and 9.7 ± 7.6 ng/ml, both P<0.001). The 77% of primigravida women and 55% of second gravida women had serum 25-OH vitamin D concentrations below 10 ng/ml. Strong association was observed between low vitamin D levels and increase in parity. Conclusion: The high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy calls for unanimous approach to tackle this grave situation by implementing a national strategy for screening, prevention, and treatment of this deficiency.

Full Text:



Palacios C, Gonzalez L. Is vitamin D deficiency a major global public health problem? J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2014 Oct;144 Pt A:138-45. doi: 10.1016/j. jsbmb. 2013.11.003. Epub 2013 Nov 12.

Lapillonne A. Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy may impair maternal and fetal outcomes. Med Hypotheses. 2010 Jan; 74(1):71-5. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy. 2009. 07. 054. Epub 2009 Aug 18.

O'Riordan MN, Kiely M, Higgins JR, Cashman KD. Prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status during pregnancy. Ir Med J. 2008 Sep;101(8):240, 242-3.

Harris A. Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnant Women at a Tertiary Hospital in Western Sydney. Obstet GynecolInt J. 2017; 7(1): 00234. DOI: 10.15406/ogij.2017.07.00234.

Theodoropoulos C, Demers C, Delvin E, Ménard D, Gascon-Barré M. Calcitriol regulates the expression of the genes encoding the three key vitamin D3 hydroxylases and the drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 in the human fetal intestine. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2003 Apr;58 (4): 489-99.

Andersen LB, Jørgensen JS, Jensen TK, Dalgård C, Barington T, Nielsen J, Beck-Nielsen SS, Husby S, Abrahamsen B, Lamont RF, Christesen HT. Vitamin Dinsufficiency is associated with increasedrisk offirst-trimestermiscarriage in the Odense Child Cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Sep; 102(3):633-8. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114. 103655. Epub 2015 Jul 15.

Flood-Nichols SK, Tinnemore D, Huang RR, Napolitano PG, Ippolito DL. Vitamin D deficiency in early pregnancy. PLoS One.2015 Apr 21; 10(4): e0123763. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0123763.e Collection 2015.

Ota K, Dambaeva S, Han AR, Beaman K, Gilman-Sachs A, Kwak-Kim J. Vitamin D deficiency may be a risk factor for recurrent pregnancy losses by increasing cellular immunity and autoimmunity. Hum Reprod. 2014 Feb;29(2):208-19. doi: 10.1093/humrep/det424. Epub 2013 Nov 24.

Ghadimi R, Esmaeilzadeh S, Firoozpour M, Ahmadi A. Does vitamin D status correlate with clinical and biochemical features of polycystic ovarysyndrome in high school girls? Caspian J Intern Med 2014; 5(4):202–8.

Rosen CJ. Clinical practice. Vitamin D insufficiency. N Engl J Med. 2011 Jan 20;364(3):248-54. doi: 10.1056/ NEJMcp1009570.

Wagner CL, Taylor SN, Johnson DD, Hollis BW. The role of vitamin D in pregnancy and lactation: emerging concepts. Womens Health (Lond). 2012 May;8(3):323-40. doi: 10.2217/whe.12.17.

Shin JS, Choi MY, Longtine MS, Nelson DM.Vitamin Deffects on pregnancy and the placenta. Placenta. 2010 Dec;31(12):1027-34. doi: 10.1016/j.placenta.2010.08.015. Epub 2010 Sep 22.

Adams JS, Hewison M.Extrarenalexpression of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1-hydroxylase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2012 Jul 1; 523(1):95-102. doi: 10.1016/j. abb. 2012.02. 016. Epub 2012 Mar 14.

Hewison M, Burke F, Evans KN, Lammas D, Sansom DM, Liu P et al. Extra-renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D -1alpha-hydroxylase in human health and disease. J Steroid BiochemMol Biol. 2007; 103:316–321.

Weisman Y, Harell A, Edelstein S, David M, Spirer Z, Golander A.1 alpha, 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in vitrosynthesis by humandecidua and placenta. Nature. 1979 Sep 27;281(5729):317-9.

Sharma S, Kumar A, Prasad S, Sharma S. CurrentScenario of Vitamin D Status During Pregnancy in North Indian Population. J ObstetGynaecolIndia. 2016 Apr; 66 (2):93-100. doi: 10.1007/s13224-014-0658-5. Epub 2015 Jan 21.

Ravinder SS, Deepika C, Padmavathi R, Balakrishnan K, Vijayaraghavan J. Occurrence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women in South India – A preliminary study. Int J Pure ApplBiosci. 2015; 3(2):291-6.

Bartoszewicz Z, Kondracka A, Krasnodebska-Kiljańska M, Niedźwiedzka B, Popow M, Ambroziak U, Bednarczuk T. Vitamin D insufficiency in healthy pregnant women living in Warsaw. Ginekol Pol. 2013 May;84(5):363-7.

Vandevijvere S, Amsalkhir S, Van Oyen H, Moreno-Reyes R. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women: A national cross sectional survey. PLoS One. 2012; 7(8):e43868.https://doi. org/10.1371/journal. pone.0043868.

Choi R, Kim S, Yoo H, Cho YY, Kim SW, Chung JH, Oh SY, Lee SY.Highprevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnantKoreanwomen: the first trimester and the winterseason as risk factors for vitamin D deficiency. Nutrients. 2015 May 11;7(5):3427-48. doi: 10.3390/nu 7053427.

Steer PJ. Is vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy advisable? Lancet. 2013 Jun 22; 381 (9884): 2143-5. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60098-7. Epub 2013 Mar 19.

De-Regil LM, Palacios C, Ansary A, Kulier R, Peña-Rosas JP. Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Feb 15; (2): CD008873. doi: 10.1002/14651858. CD008873. pub2.


  • There are currently no refbacks.