A comparative study of endoscopic findings, Rapid Urease Test and Conventional Histopathology in diagnosis of Helicobacter Pylori infection

Shashikant Adlekha, Tandra Chadha

Abstract


Background: Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) related gastritis is a major health ailment in developing nations. There is high morbidity and mortality ranging from chronic gastritis to gastric malignancies. Prevalence of H pylori infection varies markedly from country to country and in a country, region to region. Aim of the study: To evaluate the commonly available diagnostic methods, Rapid Urease Test (RUT) and conventional histopathology in diagnosis of H pylori gastritis and analyse the association of H Pylori with the development of gastrointestinal complications. Settings and design: Cross sectional prospective study conducted during the period of May 2012 to September 2014. Material and method: The study was carried out in a tertiary medical college hospital in southern India. Patients presenting with dyspeptic symptoms were subjected to endoscopy and investigated for H pylori infection through histopathological examination and RUT of biopsy specimen. Diagnosis of H pylori was made if one or both diagnostic test results were positive. Results: Out of 530 patients analyzed, diagnosis of H pylori was made in 329 patients (62.0%). There were significant statistical correlations of presence of endoscopic abnormalities and serious gastrointestinal complication (peptic ulcer and dysplasia/cancer) with H pylori infection. RUT had comparable predictive values to histopathology in diagnosis of H Pylori infection. Conclusion: H Pylori is implicated with significant morbidity and mortality due to associated gastrointestinal complications. Early and precise detection by multiple cost-effective methods, bearing good patient compliance and prompt treatment is essential for prevention of serious complications.

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